
Add and subtract within 20.
6. Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 =
13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one
knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent
6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).


6. Understand division as an unknownfactor problem. For example, find 32 ÷ 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when
multiplied by 8


